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Physiology II
Renal Control of Acid/Base Balance

(Ch. 8, Koeppen and Stanton)

Understand the relationship between plasma hydrogen ion concentration, plasma pCO2 values, and plasma bicarbonate ion concentrations, and how they are in equilibrium with each other to form the plasma pH.

Understand the concept of the Henderson equation, and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

Be able to explain the relationship between the intracellular buffers and the extracellular buffers (Isohydric principle).

Know the difference between volatile and fixed acids, and how they are handled by the lungs and kidneys, respectively.

Know the principal differences between the four common acid/base disorders, namely a metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, and a respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

Understand the concepts of how to determine which type of acid base is occurring by looking at hydrogen ion balance, pCO2, and bicarbonate ion concentration.

Know the mechanism of compensation for each of the four common acid/base disorders.

Understand the concept of how bicarbonate ion is both reclaimed and synthesized in the nephron.

Understand the role of titratable acidity in urine buffering of hydrogen ions.

Know how medullary recycling of ammonia contributes to urinary buffering of hydrogen ions. Understand the diagnostic value of the anion gap


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