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Hormone Comparison Table's

Hormone

Glandular Origin

Structural Type

Synthesis And Secretion

Receptor Target organ

Growth
hormone
GH

Anterior pituitary

Protein

prohormone- can be stored
-stimulated by GHRH

membrane receptor - all cells of body

Cortisol

Adrenal cortex

Steroid

enzymes convert cholesterol to hormone - made only when needed

intracellular receptor - mostly liver

TSH
Thyroid Stimulating hormone

Anterior Pituitary

Glycoprotein

prohormone
-secreted by hypothalamus
-stored until needed

membrane receptor
-thyroid

ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone vasopressin

Posterior pituitary

Polypeptide protein

prohormone made in hypothalamus
-stored and released from post. pituitary

membrane receptor - kidney

Insulin

pancreas

protein

preprohormone - stored

Membrane receptor - liver, muscle and adipose

Glucagon

pancreas

polypeptide

preprohormone - stored

Membrane receptor
-liver and adipose mostly

PTH
Parathyroid Hormone

parathyroid

protein

prohormone - stored

Membrane receptor - bone, kidney, and intestine

Catecholamines Eprinephrine norepinephrine

neurons in the adrenal medulla

amines

enzyme induced production in cell - stored

Membrane receptor - mostly muscles and liver

Aldosterone

Adrenal Cortex

Steriod

Enzymes convert Chol. To hormone
-made only when needed, not stored

intracellular receptor - Liver

Vit D

Diet
Skin

Lipid

converted to usable form in liver and then kidney
-released slowly

promotes intestinal absorbtion of calcium

Thyroid T3 + T4

Thyroid

Amine

enzyme induced production in cell 
-stored

intranuclear receptor
-all cells of body

Calcitonin

thyroid

polypeptide

prohormone
-stored

intranuclear receptor
-Bone

Continued Below

Hormone

Transport Mechanism

Physiologic Effect

Patho physiology

Growth
hormone
GH

Protein bound

Increases:
-protein synthesis
-mobilization of fats
-utilization of glucose

Dwarfism
Giantism
Acromegaly Panhypopituitis

Cortisol

Protein bound

stimulates gluconeogenesis
-increases protein +lipid breakdown 
-antiinflammatory
-supress imm.respon.

Cushing’s syndrome (hypersecretion
Addison’s disease
(hyposecretion)

TSH
Thyroid Stimulating hormone

Unbound

stimulates thyroid to secrete its hormones T3 + T4

Hyperthyroid
Hypothyroid

ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone vasopressin

Unbound

-increases permeability of collecting ducts + distal tubules to H2O
-increases water reabsorbtion

Diabetes Insipidus (hyper, or hypo secretion)

Insulin

Unbound

-increases glycogen stores
-increases glucose uptake
-aa to protein
-fat to adipose

Diabetes Type 1 and 2

Glucagon

Unbound

-increases blood glucose conc.
-glycogenlolysis
-lipolysis

 

PTH
Parathyroid Hormone

binds with plasma protein -complexes with phosphate

regulates Ca metabolism
-increases plasma Ca levels

Rickets – children
Oteomalacia - Adults
-Vit D deficiency

Catecholamines Eprinephrine norepinephrine

unbound

"Fight or Flight" - energy mobilization

 

Aldosterone

protein bound

binds DNA 
-regulates protein synthisis

 

Vit D

 

increases Ca absorbtion – intest.
-increases Ca reabsorbtion – kidney

 

Thyroid T3 + T4

protein bound

gene transcription
-generalized increase in activety
-increased basal metabolic rate

Hypo + Hyper thyroidism

Calcitonin

 

increase plasma Ca
-increase Ca resorbtion

 

 

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